|Liverpool was one of the heaviest targets outside London during
World War II. The German's intention was to close off the ports
of Liverpool and effectively cut off Britain's main artery for
supplies. Liverpool heard the fearful air raid sirens over 500
times with bombs dropped on the city on no less than 79 occasions.
As a result of the air raids on Merseyside, 2,596 people were
killed with almost the same number seriously injured. More than
11,000 homes were completely destroyed and over 150,000 damaged.
The May Blitz on Merseyside was one of the last series of
big raids on Britain before the German invasion of Russia.
It involved 681 bombers in all. They dropped about 870 tonnes
of high explosive bombs and over 112,000 incendiaries (firebombs).
This was the last major air assault on Merseyside during the
war. It caused massive damage to the city centre, the port
and the entire area.
In May 1941, the Luftwaffe made a concentrated effort on Merseyside
and the devastation that followed in eight nights of terror
will never be forgotten. 1,746 people lost their lives with
1,154 seriously injured. In the eight day period, the city
suffered the most intensive and destructive raiding it had
experienced during the war. Each night around the hours of
midnight, wave after wave of planes bombarded the city and
surrounding areas with bombs, parachute mines and incendiary
Many city centre buildings were completely destroyed and thousands
of Merseysiders took refuge each night in the suburbs, sleeping
in the open. Amazingly, 41,000 people were found accommodation
within a week with a further 10,000 finding refuge in other
Hundreds of fires burned out of control throughout the city
and fire fighters battled relentlessly to extinguish them
before the hours of darkness and the next fearful wave of
attack. Bodies of the young and old lay in streets or buried
beneath the rubble. Hospitals and mortuaries were completely
full and in one mass funeral on 14 May, approximately 1000
people were buried at Anfield cemetery in a common grave.
At the time, media censorship meant that the horrors befalling
the city went unreported in order to boost morale. Liverpool
was known simply as a 'Northern Town' with the varying degrees
of devastation referred to as 'incidents'. Despite the severe
attack, the port of Liverpool was still able to handle over
85,000 tons of cargo and remained the main point of entry
for essential supplies. Hitler's plan to destroy the city
and its port certainly knocked the stuffing out of the proud
city, but the character and pride of the people of Merseyside
was too strong.
After the eighth consecutive night of attack on May 8, the
bombers did not return to Merseyside on such a scale again.
'I see the damage done by the enemy
attacks, but I also see the spirit of an unconquered people.'
- British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, May 1941
The Battle of the Atlantic was conducted from Derby House,
Liverpool and was a major factor of the second World War that
lasted the full duration of the war. German submarines relentlessly
attacked the essential convoys of food and supplies to Britain.
Winston Churchill said that he feared the U-Boat menace more
than any other form of attack during the conflict.
Commander F J Walker did more than any other man at sea to
win the Battle of the Atlantic, which Churchill described
as the dominating factor throughout World War Two. Walker's
knowledge and experience of the Navy enabled him to come up
with revolutionary methods, which gave the Royal Navy supremacy.
Eventually promoted to Captain, 'Johnnie' Walker became a
legend in the history of the Royal Navy. He will always be
remembered as the destroyer of 20 U-boats for which he was
awarded a CB and four DSOs.
He died of exhaustion in July 1944 and was buried at sea.
A bronze statue portrays him, looking out to sea with binoculars
in hand. Tom Murphy erected the statue in 1998 after fundraising
by the Captain Walker Old Boys' Association.